Catégorie : CNRS

19
Jan
2022
Posted in CNRS

Europe set to fight cancer

The European Union aims to reduce by 3 million the number of deaths from cancer on the continent between now and 2030. As France took over the EU presidency on 1 January 2022, we review the situation with Yvan De Launoit, deputy scientific director in …

19
Jan
2022
Posted in CNRS

Europe set to fight cancer

The European Union aims to reduce by 3 million the number of deaths from cancer on the continent between now and 2030. As France took over the EU presidency on 1 January 2022, we review the situation with Yvan De Launoit, deputy scientific director in …

17
Jan
2022
Posted in CNRS

The unforeseen acceptance of deepfakes

Rapid improvements in deepfake technology, which makes it possible to modify a person’s appearance or voice in real time, call for an ethical review at this still early stage of its use. Researchers working in the field of cognitive science shed some l…

13
Jan
2022
Posted in CNRS

Art and archaeology are the new frontiers for AI

Algorithms are increasingly reliable for identifying the content of images, but so far have not been able to evaluate their aesthetic or emotional value. A new horizon that artificial intelligence is now beginning to explore.

12
Jan
2022
Posted in CNRS

Artificial genomes offer a promising lead

This is research that has not gone unnoticed: scientists have created extremely realistic artificial genomes as a result of their work on artificial neural networks. Flora Jay, who coordinated these efforts, explains.

11
Jan
2022
Posted in CNRS

Covid-19: What have we learned from the pandemic?

From the Neolithic period to modern times, from cattle plague to SARS-CoV-2, the emergence of new infectious diseases has often been the result of changes that mankind has inflicted on the environment. This joint documentary with the French daily Le Mo…

09
Jan
2022
Posted in CNRS

Oxytocin, from love potion to medicine

Oxytocin appears to be involved in several types of attachment, including love. Marcel Hibert explains its chemical and biological mechanisms and the therapeutic hopes it inspires, notably in the treatment of autism.

17
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Sea monsters at the time of the dinosaurs

Over 60 million years ago, superpredators such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and mosasaurs roamed the seas. But what exactly were these reptiles, which are often incorrectly referred to as “marine dinosaurs”? CNRS News asked three of the authors of “La …

16
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Urban birds, stressed birds

Birds are an increasingly rare sight in our cities. In this report, researchers from the Centre for Biological Studies of Chizé (CEBC) investigate the problems – noise, light, lack of food – that affect various species of birds in urban areas, and seek…

15
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Data storage: the DNA revolution

Two seminal revolutionary declarations, now stored and encapsulated in DNA, are joining the French national archives (Archives nationales). Behind this project is the DNA Drive technology developed by the researchers Stéphane Lemaire and Pierre Crozet.

14
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

SPIRAL2, the atom factory

In the French city of Caen, GANIL’s new heavy ion accelerator, SPIRAL2, has completed commissioning. The custom-built linear accelerator is even more powerful than its predecessor and will pave the way for the exploration, with unparalleled precision, …

13
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Writers know no frontiers

With more than 500 documents from archives around the globe, a new collective volume translated into eight languages traces the history of PEN International, the largest worldwide writers’ organisation, which is celebrating its centennial this year.

12
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Ransomware: research strikes back

All it takes is one click for your computer to be taken hostage by a malware program that will relinquish control only for a ransom. Upon the launch of Cybermallix, a CNRS joint laboratory with the software publisher Wallix, Jean-Yves Marion, director …

07
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Sea urchins under threat

Over the past few years, populations of purple sea urchins off the coasts of France have been declining. In Corsica, researchers at the Stella Mare lab, headed by Antoine Aiello, winner of the CNRS 2021 innovation medal, are taking action by monitoring…

07
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Natural radioactivity sustains unsuspected subsurface life

At the bottom of mines or beneath the ocean floor, drillings reveal the presence of vast communities of microorganisms in the subsurface of our planet. Scientists believe this could be due to natural radioactivity in rocks, which may offset the lack of…

07
Déc
2021
Posted in CNRS

Athénan, a multi-champion AI

Close-up on a French system that won the jackpot at the recent 24th Computer Olympiad, a global multi-game competition for artificial intelligence.

27
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

Do algorithms keep playing the same old song?

What is the impact of algorithmic recommendations on the diversity of the music being streamed? Using data made available by Deezer, the researchers of the Records project have formulated an initial detailed view of the question.

25
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

How imaging is revolutionising biology

For the launch of the Year of Biology, the neurobiologist Daniel Choquet explains how progress in imaging has contributed to the current explosion of knowledge in the life sciences.

24
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

A new window into the Bronze Age discovered in central France

A team of archaeologists from the TRACES laboratory, in southwestern France, carrying out excavations in the Allier department (central France) has made a discovery dating back to more than 2,800 years ago. They have uncovered several exceptional depos…

24
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

MAGIC explores the polar skies

Last August, the scientists taking part in the fourth MAGIC campaign headed for Scandinavia, north of the Arctic Circle. Their goal was to study the atmospheric distribution of greenhouse gases using ground-based instruments, balloons and research airc…

23
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

“Proust’s political and literary activities are indissociable”

Everyone is familiar with the author, but Marcel Proust also championed a number of political ideas, some of which are still in the public arena today. To mark the anniversaries of his winning the Goncourt Prize in French literature in 1919 and his dea…

21
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

How light governs sleep

At the Hospices Civils general hospital in Strasbourg (northeastern France), the researchers of the International Research Center for ChronoSomnology (CIRCSom) want to know how well we sleep and why. Their research focuses in particular on the role of …

19
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

The soil underfoot we take for granted

What contains 25% of the Earth’s known biodiversity and 75% of its terrestrial biomass, provides its natural fertility, and regulates its watercourses as well as the climate? No need to look very far, it’s right under your feet: the soil! The biologist…

10
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

Memorising the passing of time

A team from the CNRS, working in partnership with scientists from The Netherlands, has managed to identify neurons that can encode the passing of time. An important advance in our understanding of so-called episodic memory.

07
Nov
2021
Posted in CNRS

The new frontiers of the living world

With the discovery of DNA and the spectacular progress of imaging in the twentieth century, it was assumed that biology had already accomplished its revolution. Quite the opposite, says Catherine Jessus, former director of the CNRS’s Institute of Biolo…

26
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

The blob creeps into the homes of the French

As a week of experiments begins in 5,000 schools in connection with this strange unicellular organism, the biologist Audrey Dussutour is looking for 10,000 volunteers for her next participatory science experiment. The goal is to understand how global w…

26
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

The James Webb Space Telescope is set to explore the early Universe

After a series of delays, the James Webb Space Telescope is at last scheduled for launch on 18 December. Its instruments have been designed to observe the most distant objects in the Universe.

24
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

How are oceans born?

The oceans have not always looked the same as they do today. Their shape and size keep changing over the course of geological time. There are even places on Earth where they are still in the making. This raises the question of where and how oceans form…

18
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

Fascinating scientific shots

Discover the laureates of the new edition of the LPPI “Proof in Images” competition, organised by the CNRS and the ACFAS, its Canadian partner in Quebec. View these twenty fascinating submissions originating from ambitious research and vote online to s…

13
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

Personalised breast reconstruction

For women who have undergone a mastectomy after breast cancer, the start-up firm Healshape has developed a 3D bioprinted breast implant that can be adapted to all body shapes. The aim is to reconstruct the entire breast using cells from the patient.

11
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

Ruins tell the tale of human societies

The archaeologist Alain Schnapp is a specialist in ancient Greece and a keen defender of the world’s archaeological heritage. Author of the book, « A Universal History of Ruins, » he shares his thoughts on how human societies relate to their own past.

11
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

Boosting space propulsion

Higher-performance, lighter, cleaner… Scientists are using every possible means to improve the systems that allow rockets, shuttles, and satellites to take off from Earth and move about in space.

07
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

Mars: Jezero crater really was a lake

The first published data from the Perseverance rover shows that there was a large, deep lake on Mars 3.6 billion years ago, and that it was swept away by a climate upheaval.

03
Oct
2021
Posted in CNRS

Sports science in all fields

The presence of scientists within elite training squads has become increasingly commonplace. Among other things, they study pedal strokes in cycling, muscle exertion in running, and decision-making processes in basketball. Discover some of the images h…

22
Sep
2021
Posted in CNRS

Numbers that shape the world

The study of numbers has driven mathematics since antiquity. The constantly evolving field of arithmetic connects numbers and geometry, and is used in everyday applications, particularly in cryptography.

22
Sep
2021
Posted in CNRS

The mechanics of sea ice

Major climate models are based on a series of more specific overlapping models that are in constant interaction with one another. However, those describing the behaviour of sea ice have proved to be obsolete. As a result, researchers are now developing…

16
Sep
2021
Posted in CNRS

Dissecting the “spice” of Dune

One of the central elements in the new sci-fi film Dune by Denis Villeneuve is a substance with extraordinary properties. Called “spice”, it bears a resemblance to certain molecules already in use in our own world! The CNRS chemist Fabrice Chemla expla…

14
Sep
2021
Posted in CNRS

Understanding urban heat islands

The effects of urban heat islands, which can increase temperatures in cities by as much as 10 °C, are particularly noticeable in summer. For some twenty years Valéry Masson has been studying these localised phenomena, which often go undetected by conve…

09
Sep
2021
Posted in CNRS

“Mein Kampf remains invaluable for understanding Nazism”

Published last June, the study entitled Historiciser le Mal, une Édition Critique de Mein Kampf (“Historicising Evil, a Critical Edition of Mein Kampf”) is the fruit of five years of work by twelve specialists in Nazism. Historian Florent Brayard, co-d…

08
Sep
2021
Posted in CNRS

Invasive species: an ecological and economic disaster

Biological invasions are the second most common cause of species extinction on Earth, and also take a heavy toll on our health and the economy. On the occasion of the World Congress of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), to b…

02
Sep
2021
Posted in CNRS

Van Eyck was a precursor of augmented reality

Using digital technology, a researcher has unravelled the secrets of the use of perspective by the Flemish painter Jan Van Eyck, a technique previously believed to be specific to the Italian Renaissance artists.

12
Août
2021
Posted in CNRS

Landscapes of the microworld

Progress in microscopy continues to expand our window onto the world of the infinitesimally small. Whether in chemistry, biology, engineering or digital simulation, these images paint a phantasmagoric and yet factual portrait of the world that we live …

12
Août
2021
Posted in CNRS

Keeping an eye on the forest

For the past 20 years, a scientific team has been monitoring the state of health of Barbeau Forest in the Seine-et-Marne region east of Paris. Researchers and engineers analyse the flux of carbon dioxide and water vapour between the forest and the atmo…

12
Août
2021
Posted in CNRS

Keeping an eye on the forest

For the past 20 years, a scientific team has been monitoring the state of health of Barbeau Forest in the Seine-et-Marne region east of Paris. Researchers and engineers analyse the flux of carbon dioxide and water vapour between the forest and the atmo…

29
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Researchers step up the fight against Covid-19

Numerous studies are being carried out in laboratories to develop medications that can treat SARS-CoV-2. New therapeutic strategies targeting the virus or the cell proteins it hijacks to its benefit are being tested and could offer treatments that are …

28
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Edgar Morin turns 100, and continues his journey

On Thursday 8 July, France’s best-known intellectual celebrated his hundredth birthday – and eight decades of an exceptional scientific career, driven by a keen ambition to build bridges between disciplines and explore all points of view, as testified …

28
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

A century on, does BCG have a future?

Tuberculosis kills 1.5 million people throughout the world each year. A century after it was invented, BCG remains the only vaccine against this infection, which is still poorly understood. Highly effective in children, its limitations have nevertheles…

27
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Scientists are honing their weapons to fight Covid-19

Numerous studies are being carried out in laboratories to develop medications that can treat SARS-CoV-2. New therapeutic strategies targeting the virus or the cell proteins it hijacks to its benefit are being tested and could offer treatments that are …

27
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Biodiversity loss and climate change must be addressed together

A recent report, co-authored by experts on climate change (IPCC) and biodiversity loss (IPBES) shows that these two phenomena are closely related. And although some solutions put forward to tackle either of the two may prove detrimental to the other, t…

27
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Profiling sharks to eliminate killers

Dividing his time between France and Polynesia, the ichthyologist Éric Clua devotes his efforts to studying sharks, both to preserve their populations and to help prevent attacks on humans.

24
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

InSight probes the Martian interior

Since 2018, the InSight mission has been exploring the internal structure of the Red Planet. Geophysicist Philippe Lognonné tells CNRS News what they’ve discovered so far.

09
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Investigating one of the cradles of humankind

The fossiliferous site of Bolt’s Farm, in South Africa, spans millions of years of history, including episodes of climate change that impacted early hominids and their environment. To study it, researchers from the country’s National Research Foundatio…

09
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Research on HIV has reached a turning point

Forty years after its discovery, HIV-AIDS has become a chronic disease thanks to triple therapies. Yet there is still no known cure for it and a vaccine is nowhere in sight. Monsef Benkirane, a virologist at the Institute of Human Genetics (IGH), gives…

03
Juil
2021
Posted in CNRS

Black holes and neutron stars meet up with a bang

The LIGO and Virgo observatories have announced the very first sightings of the merger of a black hole and a neutron star. These discoveries should help gain a better understanding of how these compact bodies form and evolve.

29
Juin
2021
Posted in CNRS

The forest of Fontainebleau is home to rock art treasures

With more than 2 000 engraved shelters, the forest of Fontainebleau is home to one of Europe’s largest rock art complexes. A research mission in the Paris region is focusing on geometric engravings, believed to date back to the Mesolithic (11 500 BP to…

29
Juin
2021
Posted in CNRS

The story of AIDS, from fear to fight

The first identified cases of AIDS, in 1981, caused an outbreak of panic, along with widespread discrimination. Since medical science initially proved powerless, people with AIDS and support groups campaigned vigorously for access to treatment and demo…

24
Juin
2021
Posted in CNRS

Jean Dalibard receives the CNRS 2021 Gold Medal

A brilliant physicist and a leading specialist in cold atoms, an area that is central to light-matter interaction, Jean Dalibard has been awarded the CNRS 2021 Gold Medal, one of France’s highest scientific distinctions.

24
Juin
2021
Posted in CNRS

Leading CNRS project on hybrid AI launched in Singapore

A vast collaborative project on hybrid artificial intelligence, led by the CNRS’s subsidiary in Singapore and allocated a budget of €35 million over five years, will begin in late 2021.

24
Juin
2021
Posted in CNRS

How optogenetics has restored partial sight to a blind patient

Thanks to gene therapy and the use of adapted spectacles, a blind patient is now able to distinguish the shape of objects to recognise, count and grasp them. José-Alain Sahel, the lead author of this study published in Nature Medicine and a founding me…

15
Juin
2021
Posted in CNRS

Forthcoming revolution will unveil the secrets of matter

Provided adapted software can be developed, exascale computing, a new generation of supercomputers, will offer massive power to model the properties of molecules and materials, while taking into account their fundamental interactions and quantum mechan…